White Papers

Municipalities and States implement trash and floatable stormwater control through
management programs and policy.

NANCY SULLINS MPH, LEED AP

THE CLEAN WATER ACT (CWA) ESTABLISHES THE BASIC STRUCTURE FOR REGULATING DISCHARGES OF POLLUTANTS INTO THE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES AND REGULATING QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SURFACE WATERS. THE BASIS OF THE CWA WAS ENACTED IN 1948 AS THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT, BY 1972 THE ACT BECAME COMMONLY KNOWN AS “CLEAN WATER ACT”.

ISSUE

Trash, often referred to as floatables, is a pollutant. Trash in waters can prevent beneficial uses, degrade habitats, harm wildlife, and may endanger people’s health. The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) requires all states to evaluate and identify water bodies where current pollution controls are insufficient to attain water quality standards. Over 200 individual water body reaches in various states have been listed for trash, debris or floatables since 1996.

Each state’s 303(d) list helps establish priorities for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) or other measures to clean up waterways. A TMDL is like a pollution budget for a system. In
a TMDL, all the sources of a pollutant are identified, and each source is assigned a maximum amount of the pollutant that may be discharged. To develop a TMDL, a costly in-depth study is needed and can take many years to establish. Four states and a territory, Alaska, California, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, have established Trash TMDLs.

Moving forward, other less costly and more streamlined measures for addressing trash or floatable pollutants are being implemented. Municipalities and States have chosen to implement trash and floatable control through management programs and policy.

For Example:

  • New York City, NY – Floatable and Settable Trash and Debris Management Program
  • San Francisco, CA – Trash Management Program
  • City and County of Honolulu, HI – Trash Reduction Plan
  • Texas Commission on Environmental Control – General Permit TXR040000 for Phase II MS4
  • California - Statewide Trash Policy

All these programs allow for the use of trash capture technologies. Some technologies are more complex than others. Such as the floating booms and open water trash capture units used in:

  • Washington, D.C.
  • New York City, NY
  • Baltimore, MD
  • Houston, TX

SOLUTION

ParkUSA® has numerous control options for trash, litter, and floatable collection and their removal.
Products include:

The TrashTrooper® family of floatable collection products are patented inline screening systems designed to collect and contain a wide variety of floatable pollution. ParkUSA TrashTrooper® captures unwanted floatable pollutants from stormwater systems. Inside the interceptor, the influent encounters a floatable collection bar screen that traps floating debris as small as 1 ½” in size, the separated effluent exits the TrashTrooper® and continues through the municipal storm sewer systems (MS4), leaving behind debris in the product. Outfall structures with floatable collection screens are available to serve as water quality features to be used in flood control management projects.

The StormTrooper® family of hydrodynamic separation products are patented stormwater wet vaults specifically designed to intercept litter, debris, total suspended sediments (TSS), free oils, grease, and other pollutants found in stormwater runoff. The StormTrooper® features enhanced gravity separation technology, which utilizes coalescing media plates (CMP) engineered to a performance prediction based on Stokes’s Law.

BioBasin® is a water quality and treatment device that is designed to specifically remove floatable trash, hydrocarbons and sediment as well as bacteria from stormwater. The NutriBasin® is a filtration device designed to remove dissolved nutrients (e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen) from stormwater runoff. It exhibits high removal rates, especially for phosphorous (above 90% removal). The unit also contributes to sediment and floatable retention. It consists of a concrete vault with top access hatchway, inlet and outlet pipe connections, and an engineered biofiltration media contained in removable cartridges.

The MarshBasin® is a wetland stormwater treatment best management practice (BMP): an engineered ecosystem that emulates the natural wetland’s ability to improve water quality. The MarshBasin® can be used in stand-alone applications, pretreatment for infiltration, rainwater harvesting, and detention applications. It uses a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove nutrients, sediments, hydrocarbons, metals, and trash. It can also be used alongside other BMPs to maximize water quality. Its design allows for use from small urban areas to highly developed cities.

The TreeBasin® is a biofiltration stormwater treatment BMP that can be used in applications like stand-alone treatment, pretreatment for infiltration, rainwater harvesting, and detention. The TreeBasin® system uses a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove nutrients, sediments, hydrocarbons, metals, and trash from stormwater. It can be used alongside other BMPs to maximize water quality. Its design allows for use from small urban areas to highly developed cities. The TreeBasin® uses an engineered filtration/absorbing media, which presents the ideal characteristics to grow a tree.

OUR RESPONSIBILITY 

ParkUSA® believes in water technology development to combine efficiency and environmentally friendly products. ParkUSA’s goal is to offer its customers sustainable green solutions that meet todays needs, as well as anticipated changes in regulations.

Contact us for more information and design assistance.

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Litter Control White Paper

Liter Control White Paper

Sanitary Sewer overflows
and FOG

NANCY SULLINS MPH, LEED AP

SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOWS (SSO) ARE THE RELEASE OF UNTREATED SEWAGE INTO THE ENVIRONMENT.

WHAT IS FOG?

In 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that 23,000 to 75,000 SSOs and a similar amount of basement backups occur annually. These spills equate to approximately 10 billion gallons of raw sewage per year being discharged. Fat, Oil and Grease commonly referred to as FOG contributes to approximately 47% of these spills, according to the EPA.

It includes by-products of cooking. Typical sources include: food scraps, meat fats, plant oils, cooking oil, butter, margarine, sauces, gravy, mayonnaise, salad dressing, baked goods, cheese, dairy products and deep-fried foods. Other sources include body oils, lotions, oily residue from laundering and lipid-soluble hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of FOG includes free fatty acids, triglycerides, ester waxes, phospholipids, sterols and phytosterols. It enters the sanitary sewer system from restaurants, residences and industrial activities through direct introduction into a drain, washing these products down the sink with hot water or inadequate grease control.

HOW DOES FOG CAUSE A SSO?

FOG settles on the interior of pipe and other surfaces as it flows through the sewer system. Over time, the FOG mixes with other constituents such as calcium, sodium and phosphorus, found in the  sewage, forming a hard soap like compound. The results of this build up includes: severe reduction in pipe flow capacity, slow drains, sewage backups, contact with disease carrying bacteria, corrosion
of sewer lines and costly repairs.

A study completed by North Carolina State University for the EPA found that FOG deposits preferentially accumulated on root surfaces and in pipe sag regions as well as areas where pipes had increased surface roughness. The study noted that FOG formation occurred with a wide range of pH although the higher pH produced visually significant more solids.

HOW TO REDUCE OR PREVENT FOG FROM ENTERING THE SEWER SYSTEM?

Activities that citizens can do to reduce FOG from entering the sewer system include:

  • Do not pour fat, oil or grease down drains or garbage disposals.
  • Do not use hot water to rinse grease off cookware, utensils, dishes or surfaces.
  • Use paper towel to clean up oil spills and throw in to trash.
  • Washing oil dish clothes in a washing machine still introduces oil (FOG) into the sewer system.

For restaurants, commercial food services and industrial activities with FOG production there is only one method, that is to control FOG buildup from the source. This method includes recycling cooking
oil, reduce the amount of food waste entering sewer system through washing and the installation of a grease interceptor, which separates FOG from the waste stream.

SOLUTION

ParkUSA® offers a wide variety of infrastructure products to address FOG, for interception and system repair.

ParkUSA® GreaseTrooper® is a family of gravity interceptor devices designed to reduce the amount of FOG in wastewater. Grease interceptors work on the buoyancy principle. Fats and oils are 10 to 15
percent less dense than water and do not mix with water. Thus, fats and oils float on top of water. When wastewater enters a grease interceptor, the velocity is reduced enough that wastewater is given time to cool and separate into 3 layers. The fats and oils rise to the top inside the interceptor and are trapped using a system of baffles. Solids settle at the bottom, and the separated clear water escapes under an outlet baffle. Grease interceptors can also have strainers for collecting solid debris, which reduce the quantity of solids that settle at the bottom of the interceptor. Over time, solid and grease buildup will accumulate in the grease interceptor. A routine cleaning schedule will ensure maximum performance of each interceptor.

The ParkUSA® OilTrooper® Model SOCMP is a sand-oil interceptor that consist of a multicompartment basin and patented enhanced separation technology for sediment and oil separation. Typical applications include vehicle maintenance and washrack facilities, fueling depots, industrial  areas, parking lots, and storm water runoff. The OilTrooper sand-oil interceptor is used to meet wastewater pretreatment code requirements.

ParkUSA® GOTrooper® is a Grit-Oil Interceptor that intercepts cosmetic wash water. The unit can be designed to function as a gravity flow or pumped-driven system. The wastewater flows into an inlet
chamber, passes through a baffle and oleophilic coalescing plate pack to separate oil and solids. The discharging effluent is the clearer water underneath the floating oils.

ParkUSA® Manhole OPS (overflow protection system) is a system that includes a lined manway with a pressure rated ring and cover that is suitable for preventing overflows due to system surcharging
and infiltration from flood waters. ParkUSA® offers customized systems to address any unique and challenging sewer system SSO situation.

OUR RESPONSIBILITY 

ParkUSA® believes in water technology development to combine efficiency and environmentally friendly products. ParkUSA’s goal is to offer its customers sustainable green solutions that meet todays needs, as well as anticipated changes in regulations.

Contact us for more information and design assistance.

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SSO & FOG White Paper

SSO & FOG White Paper

Clean Water Act, Stormwater and Changes

NANCY SULLINS MPH, LEED AP

INCREASED FOCUS ON INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER PERMIT COMPLIANCE AND FLOATABLE COLLECTION WITHIN MS4 SERVICE AREA

BACKGROUND

History of Clean Water Act - In 1972 the Clean Water Act (CWA) established the NPDES permit program to address water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants to waters of the United States.

The 1987 Water Quality Act (WQA) added a section 402(p) to the CWA requiring EPA to develop and implement a storm water permitting program. The EPA developed this program in two phases (Phase
I: 1990; Phase II: 1999). Those regulations establish NPDES permit requirements for municipal, industrial, and construction site storm water runoff. This permitting mechanism is designed to prevent stormwater runoff from washing harmful pollutants into local surface waters.

Phase I regulates storm water discharges from medium and large municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4), construction activities of 5 acres or larger (or less than 5 acres if part of a common plan of development or sale), and industrial activities. To be regulated under Phase I, a MS4 must service a population of 100,000 or greater based on the 1990 census.

Phase II extends the regulations to storm water discharges from small MS4s, and construction activities that disturb equal to or greater than 1 acre of land (or less than 1 acre if part of a common plan of development of sale). To be regulated under Phase II, a MS4 is located within an urbanized area, based on the 2000 census, as defined by the Bureau of Census or designated by the NPDES permitting authority.

Under the CWA, the EPA authorizes the NPDES permit program to States, tribal, and territorial governments, enabling them to perform many of the permitting, administrative, and enforcement aspects of the NPDES program. In States authorized to implement CWA programs, EPA retains oversight responsibilities. Because 46 states and one territory are authorized to implement the NPDES program there is site specific variability in permit requirements between permit authorities.

MEASURED WATER QUALITY IMPAIRMENT

During the summers of 2008 and 2009, EPA evaluated 1,924 river and stream sites across the country, representing 1.2 million miles of rivers and streams to determine the national biological condition of our water bodies. Of the nation’s river and stream length, 46% is in poor biological condition, 25% is in fair condition, and 28% in good condition.

States assessed 1,107,002 of the nation’s 3.5 million miles of rivers and streams to determine if the water bodies were meeting state water quality standards. Of these assessed miles, 614,153 (55.5%) were identified as impaired, 5,550 (0.5%) were considered threatened, and another 487,299 (44 %) were rated good. The major pollutants identified include: bacteria, sediment, and nutrients such as
phosphorus and nitrogen.

Stormwater runoff is generated from rain and snowmelt events that flow over land or impervious surfaces, such as paved streets, parking lots, and building rooftops, and does not soak into the ground. The runoff picks up pollutants like trash, chemicals, oils, and dirt/sediment that can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and coastal waters. To protect these resources, communities, construction companies, industries, and others, use stormwater controls, known as best management practices (BMPs). These BMPs filter out pollutants and/or prevent pollution by controlling it at its source. The benefits of effective stormwater runoff management include:

  • protection of wetlands and aquatic ecosystems,
  • improved quality of receiving waterbodies,
  • conservation of water resources
  • protection of public health, and
  • flood control.

CHANGES

Through the NPDES permitting program, States and the EPA are tightening the control of pollutants washing into water bodies, by use of best management practices (BMPs), to address poor water quality that continues to remain even though the CWA has made great progress.

For example:

EPA is requiring all industrial stormwater permits to electronically report compliance data by 2016 or as states data portals are operational, making compliance more transparent and enforceable.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), starting December 2018, will be requiring the Phase II MS4, with populations of 100,000 or greater, to establish programs to control the discharge of floatables into their storm sewer system and to evaluate new and existing flood control management projects for their water quality impact.

AVAILABLE BMPS

ParkUSA® has numerous control options for meeting industrial and MS4 permitting requirements, from oil and sediment interception, floatable collection and nutrient removal. Products include:

The TrashTrooper® family of floatable collection products are patented inline screening systems designed to collect and contain a wide variety of floatable pollution. TrashTrooper® serves as an effective BMP, limiting the quantity of harmful pollutants being discharged during and following rain events. Outfall structures with floatable collection screens are available to serve as water quality features to be used in flood control management projects.

The StormTrooper® family of hydrodynamic separation products are patented stormwater wet vaults specifically designed to intercept free oils, grease, total suspended sediments (TSS), debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater runoff. The StormTrooper® features enhanced gravity separation technology, which utilizes coalescing media plates (CMP) engineered to a performance prediction based on Stokes’s Law.

AquaSweep® Series are oil-water separators that utilizes an enhanced gravity separation method of oil from oil-water mixtures. They are designed for underground (direct-bury) or for aboveground
(freestanding) applications dependent on model.

The NutriBasin® is a filtration device designed to remove dissolved nutrients (e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen) from stormwater runoff. It exhibits high removal rates, especially for phosphorous (above 90% removal). The unit also contributes to sediment and floatable retention. It consists of a concrete vault with top access hatchway, inlet and outlet pipe connections, and an engineered biofiltration media contained in removable cartridges.

OUR RESPONSIBILITY 

ParkUSA® believes in water technology development to combine efficiency and environmentally friendly products. ParkUSA’s goal is to offer its customers sustainable green solutions that meet todays needs, as well as anticipated changes in regulations.

Contact us for more information and design assistance.

Additional Resources

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Stormwater White Paper

Stormwater White Paper

New Document Updates

Product Update

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